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Αρχική contagious: why things catch on summary

contagious: why things catch on summary

A Summary of ‘Contagious: Why Things Catch On’ by Jonah Berger a. There may not actually be a sale at all, but “setting a higher reference point made the first deal seem better even though the price was higher overall.”, So you are aware of the power of the word ‘sale,’ in a study, using the word ‘sale’ by an item when the price didn’t change at all increased sales by more than 50 percent. “Contagious” is easy to read, insightful and highly applicable. He introduces the STEPPS formula that will help you to reach your sales goals and create a must-have product. My notes If something is built to show, it’s built to grow. The articles that were shared the most in his analysis of the NY Times Most Emailed list were articles that provoked awe, excitement, amusement, anger, or anxiety. KitKat was seeing a constant slump in sales that seemed hard to stop. Jonah Berger is a marketing professor at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and internationally bestselling author of Contagious, Invisible Influence, and The Catalyst.He’s a world-renowned expert on social influence, word of mouth, and why products, ideas, and behaviors catch on and has published over 50 papers in top-tier academic journals. They think in terms of narratives… Stories carry things. Of course, as the author himself says, “Contagious” is not a recipe which you can apply and be guaranteed of success. Emotion. If you are a marketer, you don’t want this to be the case for your product. How’s that possible with all the excitement and uniqueness that Disney World commands? There is also an argument by psychologists “that emotions can also be classified based on a second dimension. One of the things sharing does is that it helps us signal to others what our identity is. Cheerios are seen often at the supermarket and breakfast every day remind people of Cheerios. Jonah Berger says that it’s six principles: It’s important to notice that Jonah Berger says that the principles are not like ingredients. Jobs realized that seeing others do something makes people more likely to do it themselves.” He wanted an observer to see the Apple logo the right way, making it more enticing for them to want to buy it. People often imitate those around them.” This concept of doing things strangers do, or what are friends do is often referred to as ‘social proof.’ You’ve probably seen this in action, such as when a crowd of people are looking at something, you start looking too, wondering what is going on. Sadness and contentment decrease arousal, slow us down and make us relax, leading us to share less. What about the color red and the word soda together? The way people actually make decisions often violates standard economic assumptions about how they should make decisions. What did you learn from Contagious? Berger explains that “regardless of how plain or boring a product or idea may seem, there are ways to make it contagious…” if you know the right way to do it. Write down why you think people are doing something. Jonah suggests brands use scarcity and exclusivity to make customers feel like insiders. “People don’t think in terms of information. “Just like many other animals, people care about hierarchy,” aka we are prone to status displays. The author provides a few examples of a few products that effectively used the observability principle. Wein was not selling just another cheesesteak, but a conversation piece. Contagious Book Summary & Review in PDF The Power Moves - Jonah Berger is a marketing professor at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and author of the New York Times and Wall Street Journal bestseller Contagious: Why Things Catch On. In his award-winning, New York Times best seller Contagious Why Things Catch On, author Jonah Berger gives countless real-life examples of the mysterious methods employed to capture the logic defying attention of the masses. The ads basically said that drugs are bad but also, crucially, that other people are doing it. He did it by using great ingredients and asking for an exorbitant price: a hundred dollars. I can't speak for anyone else and I strongly recommend you to read the book in order to fully grasp the concepts written here. He states that one of the reasons people over-share is that “if situational factors end up making us physiologically aroused, we may end up sharing more than we planned.”, So if you need to learn certain information from someone, but you know it may be difficult to get out, you could bring them to a place where they will be physiologically aroused. Emotion. Now I don’t suggest doing that, but people may do that to you, so be wary of yourself if you are entering into a potential high arousal state. Dr. Berger has spent over 15 years studying how social influence works and how it drives products and ideas to catch … Very interestingly, Jonah Berger says that when we are in aroused states we tend to share more than we’d normally want. Exclusive things are accessible only to people who meet particular criteria.”. Jonah Berger introduces his book by discussing the importance of word of mouth marketing. It’s 6 characteristics they all share, and if you want to go viral, you better incorporate them in your marketing. “Kahneman received the Nobel Prize for his work with Amos Tversky on what they called ‘prospect theory.’ The theory is amazingly rich, but at its core, it’s based on a very basic idea. One way he says to do this is by “breaking a pattern people have to come to expect” or just focus on what about your product makes it stand out from all the rest. So make a product easy to see and highlight how its valuable for the person to use and how its pricing is of value. Scarce things are less available because of high demand, limited production, or restrictions on the time or place you can acquire them… Exclusivity is also about availability, but in a different way. Make the customer try to achieve something or accrue some kind of currency, such as Regal crown club points that make a person more likely to visit a Regal theater again rather than a competitor because they want to accrue more points. Public. The example of the anti drug “say no” campaign was also extremely interesting. He is considered an expert on word of mouth, social influence and viral marketing. You’ll be fighting to keep us as consumers demand more and more. They must not be deployed in a certain fashion, and they are not even all needed at the same time. The rule is basically that if an item is less than $100 than a percentage off seems more than a number discount, while the opposite is true with anything above $100. Jonah Berger says blending your advertising into a story is equivalent to building a Trojan Horse. When the ads said that only 37% of music was being paid for, the author implies the message was counterproductive. People are more likely to share something if they think it’s a secret, since it shows … Some ideas catch on for simply being better than the alternatives. What is then the secret to make our messages contagious? People talk about more cheerios than Disney World. Airlines turned loyalty into a status symbol.”. I want to note that to really take away the most from this section you will want to read the book because he shares a lot of useful information to back up his point. Make your product remarkable, so people will want to share it. Making people feel like insiders work because If something is supposed to be secret or limited access people love to share it. : Few people have time to seek out the best content in this ocean of. Did the words “yellow wristband” automatically trigger the brand “LiveStrong” for you? Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Contagious: Why Things Catch On. September 4, 2017. "Going viral" is, at its heart, people telling their friends about something interesting, useful, funny, or just plain cool. It was reversed where and advertising campaign linked KitKat to coffe, so that people would use the coffe trigger to eat a KitKat bar. Not just virality but valuable virality.”. Why is it that some new products and ideas gain widespread popularity while others fail to “catch on”? Contagious: Why Things Catch On. Readers might suppose that Jonah Berger’s new book, “Contagious: Why Things Catch On,” would shed light on these famous cases of viral content. One of the prime purposes of why we share, whether you are aware of it or not, is that it helps us look good in the eyes of others. They figured out how to take support for an abstract cause—something not typically observable—and make it something that everyone can see.”. This behavior can be labeled as social currency — we build our social wealth up by sharing and influencing others in a positive way. Does the word “peanut butter” trigger anything for you? “Making something more observable makes it easier to imitate. People like to share awesome things, so if your marketing can get across that the product is remarkable, then it will help its word of mouth build. About The Author: Jonah Berger holds a PhD in marketing and is currently a professor at the Wharton School. Let’s talk about ‘Prospect Theory’ and the economist Daniel Kahneman. They were one of the first in the know, and now they’re sharing it with you. Discover how six basic principles drive all sorts of things to become popular. People shared the video of a blender smashing marbles because it was interesting and unexpected. This is important for word-of-mouth growth because when people share their achievements, they also “talk about the brands or domains where they achieved” them. It makes a great pair with a few more books on marketing and influencing such as “Make to Stick“, “The Tipping Point“, “Triggers“, “Brandwashed” and “Influence“, the big classic by Cialdini. Once again, I suggest you read the book so you can understand the studies and stories he uses to back up these points and to understand them more in depth. I suggest reading the book to get the full understanding of behavioral residue. Have you ever wondered why items sometimes use a percentage instead of a number when they offer a discount? Top of mind means tip of tongue.”, He says, “one key factor is how frequently the stimuli occurs” and that “linking a product or idea with a stimulus that is already associated with many things isn’t as effective as forging a fresher, more original link.”, “It is also important to pick triggers that happen near where the desired behavior is taking place” and to “think about the environments of the people a message or idea is trying to trigger.”. “Build a social currency-laden, triggered, emotional, public, practically valuable Trojan Horse, but don’t forget to hide your message inside. The author says that for product above 100 it’s better to highlight the amount and for products worth less than 100 it’s better to state the percentage. In fact, we will see in Chapter 3 of this summary that one is better than the other to increase the chances of an idea going viral. Contagious: Why Things Catch On [Speed Summary] Ever since Gladwell’s Tipping Point, the business press has been adding flesh to the bare bones theory that what make’s a product or idea ‘go viral’ is 1) The Law of the Few (seed with influencers), 2) The Stickiness Factor (play to psychological biases), and 3) The Power of Context (shape to fits the context of adoption and use)…. People rarely go to Disney World and few things remind them of it. Humans like to share things — it is one of the main reasons social media is so popular. People share things that makes them look good. Contagious: Why Things Catch On examines why certain media goes viral—videos, articles, memes—and others never get shared at all. Berger starts with the example of  Howard Wein. They do this because it provides social proof that other people are tipping. According to Jonah, “leveraging game mechanics requires quantifying performance… Metrics need to be created or recorded that let people see where they stand.”, The great thing is that you can gamify things you wouldn’t think are a game. They evaluate them relative to a comparison standard, or ‘reference point’.”(163). Jonah Berger says that the campaign actually increased the likelihood people would try drugs because it brought drug use into public observable territory. The case study is about how a popular yellow wristband came about. A lesson or moral. Emotion. “Researchers find that whether a discount seems larger as money or percentage off depends on the original price.”. Jonah Berger beings by saying that one of the elements of virality is simply having a great product. Berger says that it works internally as we all love achievement, but also because we want to do better than others. But that doesn’t mean you can’t somewhat increase the odds with some good knowledge, research and creativity. Jonah Berger says there are three ways to use social currency: More remarkable products are talked about twice compared to less remarkable one. He goes into several case studies of how marketers were able to link up certain triggers with certain brands causing sales to rise because people would buy them more oftenbecause they were be triggered to do so whether they were aware of it or not. It makes them look cool for sharing something reserved. Make sure your desired information is so embedded into the plot that people can’t tell the story without it.”. Owen Exec. Information or a take home message.”, Most people are very skeptical of traditional advertising these days and of people trying to persuade them to do things. Game mechanics “motivate us on an interpersonal level by encouraging social comparison.” People like to compare how they do compared to others, especially if it is a comparison against their friends. “Game mechanics are the elements of a game, application, or program — including rules and feedback loops — that make them fun and compelling.”. “Great game mechanics can even create achievement out of nothing. Jonah Berger says that interesting products receive more immediate word of mouth than boring ones, but interesting per se doesn’t sustain word of mouth over time. When it’s woven so deeply into the narrative that people can’t tell the story without mentioning it.”, So make the message you are trying to tell critical to the story. “We need to build our own Trojan Horse — a carrier narrative that people will share, while talking about our product or idea along the way.” The important part of this being the “while talking about our product or idea along the way.” We have all known some cool ads that we shared with others, but that didn’t make us at all talk about the product or idea. Similarly, when a presentation has finished and the presenter asks if there are any questions nobody asks anything, because while nobody else has probably understood, the public and visible tell us that we are probably the only ones who didn’t get it. If possible, marketers should implement game mechanics into their marketing and product plan. These two things make products seem more desirable and people love desirable things. Did you know the reason why the Apple logo on laptops doesn’t face you when the laptop is closed? The author says that depending on the price of the product it can be better to list the discount as in percentage or as an amount. I think this is a fascinating thing to consider from both the viewpoint of a purchaser and a seller. “Scarcity is about how much of something is offered. Even this summary is hard to read, because Berger’s editor failed to catch writing elements, like mixed metaphors, that detract from the message: “Contagious … So how does this help build word of mouth? “Behavioral residue is the physical traces or remnants that most actions or behaviors leave in their wake.” He goes in-depth into a case study about this effect. They focus so much on getting people to talk that they ignore that part that really matters: what people are talking about.”, You don’t want to create a story that has people talking about the story and sharing it, but not talking about the organization behind it. Jonah Berger says we share useful information because we want to help and if we can help it reflects well on us. Just remember, one of the ways to help make a product or idea contagious is to somehow make it publically observable. Comment below or tweet to us @storyshots. Unfortunately, there is a certain degree of luck involved in virality, but there are also specific characteristics that are commonly found in all products and ideas that are contagious. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. People like to be part of an exclusive group, so if they can get a deal others can’t, it will make them feel special and more likely to purchase. When we see the same triggers over and over, the product comes back to our mind over and over. The more public something is, the more likely people will imitate … “Another factor that affects whether deals seem valuable is their availability. Game Mechanics help create social currency because it can give a positive impression to others in our group whose opinions we value. Apple white iPod headphones were a big help in spreading it. If you’re a little confused about this. Stories (what narrative can we latch onto our idea? Jonah Berger goes after the idea that you have to hit the opinion leaders to make your message spread. Principle 4: Public ideas, products or social things make them much easier to share and imitate. Social Currency. One of the things he concluded was that triggers help drive ongoing word of mouth. How’s that possible with all the … Attractive pricing is another obvious why products and ideas spread. Jonah details multiple examples of viral content that was shared widely, but failed to have any positive impact on the brand. The author holds a master's degree from La Sapienza, department of communication and sociological research, and is a member of the American Psychology Association (APA). Each time you do this, note your answer, and you’ll notice that you drill down further and further toward uncovering not only the core of an idea, but the emotion behind it.”, So when you are deciding how to market things, select high arousal emotions because “simply adding more arousal to a story or ad can have a big impact on people’s willingness to share it.”, He ends this chapter talking about the concept of over-sharing. Happiness, awe, and joy are considered positive, while sadness, anger, and anxiety tend to be viewed as negative. He talks about this concept while talking about an item that is an INCREDIBLE VALUE. As Jonah Berger puts it, “just as people use money to buy products or services, they use social currency to achieve desired positive impressions among their families, friends, and colleagues.”, Jonah says marketers need to use social currency to achieve great word-of-mouth for a product. (It’s in the Triggers chapter and is relevant to Triggers so I’m putting it in this section). Jonah Berger is a marketing professor at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and bestselling author of Contagious: Why Things Catch On and Invisible Influence: The Hidden Forces that Shape Behavior. Reading over some uncharitable reviews on Amazon, I saw that some felt Berger’s observations were “obvious,” and “common sense.”I disagree.Deep truths can seem obvious when someone smart simplifies them for us, but the process of actually identifying them is not a trivial one. Mars. As he puts it the principles of contagiousness are “products or ideas that contain Social Currency and are Triggered, Emotional, Public, Practically Valuable, and wrapped in Stories.”. From consumer products and policy initiatives to B2B services and ideas and initiatives within organizations. The book starts by laying out what the author believes are the Six Principles of Contagiousness called STEPPS: social currency, triggers, emotion, public, practical value, and stories. If you’ve ever wondered why certain ideas get shared, brands get more word of mouth, or videos go viral, this book explains why. He describes two types of word of mouth: immediate and ongoing. Then ask “Why is this important?” three times. For a lot of people it does. What was your favorite takeaway? How viral happens. Game mechanics are levels and badges that make us want more. The author says that Mars bars saw a big uptick in sales when NASA launched an expedition to, guess where? Summary of Contagious: Why Things Catch On By Jonah Berger 1-Page Summary The book starts by laying out what the author believes are the Six Principles of Contagiousness called STEPPS: social currency, triggers, emotion, public, practical value, and stories. Aka if you are use to seeing an item at $1, then seeing it at $4 will seem insane even if that may be the norm in that place. Promotional offers that seem surprising or surpass expectations are more likely to be shared. Contagious: Why Things Catch On. by Kim Hartman This is a summary of what I think is the most important and insightful parts of the book. “When we care, we share” (96) There are emotions that most people deem positive while … The benefit of a product that can be seen in the public eye is that “every time people use the product or service, they also transmit social proof or passive approval because usage is observable.” Its usage by others thus helps advertise it to others. ). Observability. After reading this, your product will go viral! And sharing something that others will find interesting will give us social points. Is there an important insight that we missed? According to the book, “The reason? But putting your ad subtly into a story can help get the message across in a more efficient manner because the “information travels under the guise of what seems like idle chatter.”. “When trying to generate word of mouth, many people forget one important detail. Jonah Berger presents a very few interesting cases on how what’s public influences us even when in private most people would think otherwise. You may not have realized it, but often times in bars or coffee shops, the employees stuff the tip jar before their shift. Because accessible thoughts and ideas lead to action.”, He continues on with multiple stories about this effect in action. Thus a key factor in driving products to catch on is public visibility.”. Advertising also helps, Jonah Berger says that word of mouth is more effective than advertising because it’s more persuasive and more targeted. By Jonah Berger ... SUMMARY. Contagious content, like a good joke, is inherently viral because it spreads regardless of who is doing the talking Social currency – people share things that make them look good to others People don’t just care how they’re doing, they care about their performance in relation to other I’m afraid that virality is, in good part, the product of pure randomness. We see this theory in use all of the time when it comes to the concept of a ‘sale’ at a store. Judgments and decisions are not always rational or optimal. Instead, they are based on psychological principles of how people perceived and process information. These values also have to be easy for people to see. Consistent throughout all viral content, are six key ingredients or “STEPPS:” Social Currency; Triggers; Emotion; Public; Practical Value; Stories – none of which are mutually exclusive but are all independently available for use on your product or idea wherever and whenever it makes the most sense. To avoid this you want the brand or product benefit to be “integral to the story. A number of people have tried to shed light on the subject including Nir Eyal and Chip and Dan Heath, but in this summary we’ll give into Jonah Berger’s Contagious: Why Things Catch On. People talk about more cheerios than Disney World. And sharing something that others will find interesting will give us social points. It isn’t the only reason we share though. What do hot dogs tend to make you think about if you’re an American? As you can probably put together, immediate happens very quickly after being influenced by a product, while ongoing can happen way later. The Subtle Art of Not Giving a Fuck: Notes & Review, The Art of Everyday Assertiveness: Notes & Review, 7 Proven Responses to 7 Offensive Jokes (W/ Examples), WIIFT: When & How to Use It (& When to Avoid It), Dating For Low Self-Esteem Women: Consequences & Fixes. Highly recommended, and you can get it here on Amazon. According to Jonah Berger, the driving force behind products and ideas catching on—or, in his words, becoming “contagious”—is “social transmission,” a process otherwise known as word of mouth. “As prospect theory illustrates, one key factor in highlighting incredible value is what people expect. As Jonah puts it, “If the tip jar is empty, their customers may assume that other people aren’t really tipping and decide not to tip much themselves either. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Hotmail for example, put in the signature the link to sign up for the free service (it was the first free service). Contagious: Why Things Catch On by Jonah Berger Summary This book is perfect for anyone who wants to learn more about how to spread ideas, increase brand awareness, or grow their customer base. It’s important that the story is relevant to the product, or the product has to be a key part of the story. 1-Page Summary 1-Page Book Summary of Contagious . Jonah’s example for this is airline mile programs. September 4, 2017. So if we are on a plane with turbulences, we might tell the person sitting next to us more than we would normally like. Overall, “Contagious” is a great overview of the primary features that drive things to spread in a viral way. Articles that mainly provoked sadness were not shared widely. CHAPTER 1. Somewhat counter intuitively, making promotions more restrictive can make them more effective.” I believe this makes logical sense. The STEPPS Introduction: Why Things Catch On. You don’t want to end up asking yourself the next day, “Why did I say that?”. Just as perceptual processes influence whether we see a particular sweater as red or view an object on the horizon as far away, they also influence whether a price seems high or a deal seems good.” (163), “One of the main tenets of prospect theory is that people don’t evaluate things in absolute terms. TRIGGERS. If You Want Your Message to Spread, You Need to Get People Talking, and Imitating b. In “Contagious” by Jonah Berger, you will gain the insight you need to get your product to really catch on. Triggers do. My thought on each chapter is detailed in this series, but here is a very brief summary of the take-home messages. But if the tip jar is already brimming with money, they assume that everyone must be tipping, and thus they should tip as well.”, The observability of a product “has a huge impact on whether products and ideas catch on.”, An example he provides of this is, “The Movember Foundation succeeded because they figured out how to make the private public. One of the things Jonah asks and then answers is, “Is there something that generates social proof that sticks around even when the product is not being used or the idea is not top of mind… It’s called behavioral residue.”. This can be because the actual deal itself exceeds expectations (for example, the percentage off is so unbelievable) or because the way the deal is framed makes it seem that way.”. Contagious analyzes that traits and characteristics that viral products, ads and ideas all have in common. Social currency (people looking cool for sharing), Triggers (reminding people about our product), Public (can people see we are using the product?). This complete summary of the ideas from Jonah Berger’s book “Contagious: Why Things Catch On” reveals the six key principles that make a product or an idea contagious. Icons can be used, or badges (fourth square). PUBLIC. “The key, then, is to not only make something viral, but also make it valuable to the sponsoring company or organization. Contagious: Why Things Catch On - Ebook written by Jonah Berger. For example, many college students don’t enjoy drinking, but drink anyway because externally everybody is drinking and all others whom don’t enjoy drinking are actually keeping it private. He says though that the message in itself is more important than the messenger. In fact, “sadness articles were actually 16 percent less likely to make the Most E-Mailed list.”, Jonah Berger suggests to marketers that “rather than harping on features or facts, we need to focus on feelings; the underlying emotions that motivate people to action.”, The way he suggests marketers go about this is by mentioning advice from the book Made To Stick by Chip and Dan Heath, which says “talk about using the ‘Three Whys’ to find the emotional core of an idea. The author says that focusing on feelings is likely to increase sharing and even seemingly dull products can find a way (example of Google search with the story of a couple told through their search queries). It basically said that everyone was not paying, that it was OK not to pay and that those paying must have been idiots (similar example for wood in the park). Owen Exec. Before diving into triggers, Jonah talks some more about word of mouth. Sexual Market Value: A Practical Analysis... Virality is not the product of pure chance, You can increase the odds of going viral by incorporating some of the 6 principles. We want to be the person who shares the hot new band or cool new restaurant because it makes us look hip, tell our friends about the trending news because we are intelligent, share photos of a recent trip to show how awesome our lives are and more. Summary. In an analysis of thousands of New York Times articles to better understand why certain … A company needs to “give people a way to make themselves look good while promoting their products and ideas along the way.” He says, “There are three ways to do that: (1) find inner remarkability; (2) leverage game mechanics; and (3) make people feel like insiders.” (36). … He says that, “Sights, smells, and sounds can trigger related thoughts and ideas, making them more top of mind…Why does it matter if particular thoughts or ideas are top of mind? Observability. There are two types of emotions that lead people to sharing (or not sharing): Emotions that make us share are arousing emotions like anger, awe, anxiety or excitement. Check out the video and audio summary on StoryShots. Jonah Berger says that we don’t think in terms of information, but in terms of narrative. Built to show, built to grow. Well, if they are marketing effectively, they are using the rule of 100. The author says it’s because of triggers. He wrote, “triggers not only get people talking, they keep them talking. Well, I've been reading the book Contagious: Why Things Catch On by Jonah Berger, and it outlines 6 factors that makes things go viral. That of activation, or physiological arousal.”, And as a side note, though you probably know what arousal is, but just in case, “arousal is a state of activation and readiness for action.”. Be wary whenever you see the word ‘sale.’, Another part of prospect theory is “diminishing sensitivity,” which “reflects the idea that the same change has a smaller impact the farther it is from the reference point.”. There are emotions that most people deem positive while there are other emotions that are deemed negative. What Jonah found was that the most viral articles usually included high arousal emotions. In ‘Contagious – Why Things Catch On,’ Professor Jonah Berger explains why some topics catch fire and get shared around the world, while other issues or pieces of communication get ignored. Jobs realized that seeing others do something makes people more likely to … We share our likes, opinions, and more, letting other people know who we are. One of the ways brands use these two concepts is by doing things like including the words ‘limited availability,’ which “makes us feel like we have to act now.” So if you notice a product being sold using those words, realize that they are trying to make the product more desirable by making it appear as if it is scarce (it may not actually be), thus making it more likely you will buy it. Dr. Berger has spent over 15 years studying how social influence works and how it drives products and ideas to catch on. People love things that are practical. They would be wrong. By looking at popular culture, Wharton professor Jonah Berger analyzes what makes an idea take off. This one is straightforward. Wharton marketing professor Jonah Berger's new book, Contagious: Why Things Catch On, distills six principles that cause people to talk about … Putting a product on sales, even when the price stays the same, increases demand. The example of the music industry was simply a big laugh for me. Contagious reveals the secret science behind word-of-mouth and social transmission.

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