In the 1970’s, Pal and Sharma (1979) induced mutations by X-irradiation in D. bulbifera and D. alata with subsequent changes of steroidal sapogenin and alkaloid content in the species. 1. hirtiflora Benth.,D. Post‐Graduate Programe in Food Science and Technology, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, , 23890‐000 Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. It is suggested that there are two cotyledons in Dioscorea bulbifera L., D. praehensilis Benth., D. odoratissima Pax., D. hirtiflora Benth., D. preussii Pax., one of which remains in the seed as an absorptive organ. PMID: 12819828 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: However, the present anatomical studies of the foliar epidermises of D. bulbifera revealed not only anomocytic stomata type but anisocytic. Dioscoreaceae, the Yam Family. It is a vigorous climber plant native of West Africa predominantly found in forest gaps and forest edges. 2014 Mar; 4(3): 176–183. Stem-Twining to the left, unarmed, often with bulbils in the leaf-axils. Dioscorea bulbifera is an evergreen Perennial Climber growing to 10 m (32ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a fast rate. In view of the biological and medicinal importance of D. bulbifera, and the report of its near extinction in southeast region of Nigeria, the present study was designed to compare qualitative and quantitative micro-morphological characteristics of the wild and micropropagated plants which may be employed for correcting crude drug identification. (1977) found that D. bulbifera has diuretic and anti-inflammatory activity. A: Formation of single bulbil with aerial root; B: Single bulbil at the nodal base. La Dioscorea bulbifera que crece de forma silvestre puede ser tóxica, En cuanto a su valor medicinal, en algunos países la Dioscorea bulbífera es cultivada para satisfacer la demanda de la industria farmacéutica, porque contienen el esteroide llamado diosgenina, principal componente de … The mean±SE, minimum and maximum values were calculated for all variables. One of the first plants to be investigated there were D. mexicana, D. floribunda and D. composita. In Southwest Nigeria, D. bulbifera grows under the shade that contains a substrate composed of high levels of organic material and often over the tops of low-lying vegetation and into tree canopies. (1969) found that D. floribunda leaf homogenate converted the open-chain glycoside of diosgenin to dioscin. Herein we report the promises of Dioscorea bulbifera and its bioactive principle, diosgenin as novel α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor. ex De Wild. Plant has two types of storage organs. et al. Morphologically, the leaf description of the wild and micropropagated plants were similar in terms of leaf venation which was parallel and vein convergence at the base, leaf shape in both was cordate with long petiole and alternate arrangement, leaf margin was entire with aerial bulbils produced from the node in both wild and micropropagated plants. This may be caused by conversion of endogenous precursors by the enzymes liberated during tuber homogenization. In Dioscorea hispida, BAP (2.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.50 mg/L) with ascorbic acid 100 mg/L, elicited optimal response in shoot in which an average of (6.00±0.18) shootlets with a mean shoot length of (5.00±0.28) cm per explant was recorded. However, we can only conserve what we know hence the need to be sure that what is propagated in vitro is the same plant in the wild. Dioscorea bulbifera L., Sp. 73 Grafica 19 Concentración de alcohol para D. bulbifera al 10%, 13%, y 16% 74 Grafica 20 Concentración de alcohol para D. trífida al 10%, 13%, y 16% 75 In all media treatments, 10%-30% callus was generated (Figure 6A). The presence of anisocytic stomata in D. bulbifera together with anomocytic stomata may serve as distinguishing character for its identification from other Dioscorea species. The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. Other authors found traces of diosgenin in D. bulbifera. Studies have verified that D. bulbifera is effective in treating a wide range of diseases, such as pharyngitis, goitre, pyogenic skin infections, orchitis and cancer. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Dioscorea bulbifera (commonly known as the air potato, air yam, aerial yam, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato yam and parsnip yam) is a species of true yam in the yam family, Dioscoreaceae.It is native to Africa, Asia and northern Australia. sativa Prain. Quigley (1978) investigated Dioscorea species from Ghana: D. bulbifera, D. burkilliana, D. hirtiflora, D. minutiflora, D. praehensilis, D. preusii, D. togoensis and D. zanzibarensis. Among the 600 species of the genus Dioscorea, Dioscorea bulbifera has profound therapeutic applications due to its unique phytochemistry. Morphology and the ability to form microtuber were also found to be unaltered in cryopreserved embryo-derived plantlets. Many species of Dioscorea are native to the Old World tropics and warm-temperature regions, some to tropical America. ... Observations on the floral morphology of some Dioscorea species (Dioscoreaceae) in Nigeria. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils. Multiple root formation with single elongated shoot and no shoot and root formation. Healthy nodal segments from the green house and underground bulbil grown indoor. Generally, parameters of growth, such as number of leaves, mean multiple shoots and mean length showed optimal and better growth response in nodal segments obtained from underground bulbils (100% free of contamination) compared with nodal segments obtained from the green house (70% free of contamination) (Table 2). Dioscorea bulbifera, Air Potato, Aerial Yam, Potato Yam, Bitter Yam Family. (Feverfew), From Herb to Medicine: Forms of Herbal Products. Multiple shoots from subcultured nodal segments. Small granules (7–15 μm maximum dimension) are circular to oblate, while larger granules (25–35 μm) were typically either oblong or triangular as seen in other Dioscorea sp. Dioscorea bulbifera granules were observed to have two different morphologies. Food tuber yams include D. alata, D. bulbifera, D. rotundata, D. cayenensis, D. esculenta and D. trifida. Stem-Twining to the left, unarmed, often with bulbils in the leaf-axils. Morphology of flood plain soils Morphology deals with spatial distribution pattern of the soil characteristics. The only exception is D. bulbifera, which, although if has stems twining to the left and globose tuber and forms bulbils, was not found to contain sapogenins. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates. Abstract. Air potato is an aggressive, herbaceous vine that can attain lengths of 65 feet in a single growing season. In this regard, the important microscopic features of the leaf of D. bulbifera (an important medicinal plant) such as anomocytic and anisocytic stomata, glandular trichomes with unicellular stalk and multicellular head, cuticular striations, presence of mucilage within epidermal cell and polygonal epidermal wall with smooth surfaces may serve as useful diagnostic features. In dry tuber incubation endogenous enzymes are destroyed. MORPHOLOGY OF DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA L.21 Habit- A large glabrous climber growing 70 feet or more in length. Joly et al. Indian J Pharm Sci 49(6):233-236. Naphthalene acetic acid had been reported to inhibit root elongation in a wide range of concentrations from 0.01 µmol/L to 1 µmol/L. Slides were examined for assessment of the qualitative diagnostic features such as stomata type, cuticular striation on walls, mucilage and shape of epidermal cell with quantitative parameters such as epidermal cell size, stomata and epidermal wall dimension were recorded. The leaves are shiny green, alternate with a long petiole. 2016. Dhawan et al. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Yam (Dioscorea bulbífera) Starch: Effect on Morphology and Functional Properties Cristiany Oliveira Bernardo. In this study, we explored the cascade working mechanisms of time-dependent hepatotoxicity induced by total saponins e … Singh IP, Parthasarathy VA, Handique PJ. After 3-6 weeks of culturing, cultures were subcultured in fresh basal medium depending on the experiments. Saheed SA, Illoh HC. Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Family: Dioscoreaceae) commonly known as ‘air potato’ is an important edible medicinal plant use to treat a wide range of diseases. In the present study, MS medium+BAP (0.05 mg/L)+NAA (0.01 mg/L) produced the highest mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm with an elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm (Figure 2A, Table 1) representing 70% explants response after 8 weeks of culturing. 9 RAGHUNADAN K, JOLLY C, 1987 Starch from Dioscorea bulbifera. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates. This study combined taxonomic skill with tissue culture. The cultures were incubated at (27±1) °C with a photoperiod of 16 h at an intensity of 10-20 µmol m−2s−1. Thus, the D. bulbifera plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryogenic tissues were genetically stable at the molecular, biochemical and morphological levels. *N1: 12 weeks old nodal segment of D. bulbifera obtained from green house; **N2: 12 weeks old nodal segment obtained from underground bulbils of D. bulbifera following dormancy break. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. Behera KK, Sahoo S, Prusti AB. Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. Antibacterial activities of the extract, fractions and compounds from, Shriram V, Jahagirdar S, Latha C, Kumar V, Puranik V, Rojatkar S, et al. Nodal segments of D. bulbifera with elongated shoots. Dioscorea bulbifera (scientific name: Dioscorea bulbifera L., also known as air potato, air yam, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato yam, Chinese Pinyin: Huang Yao Zi, Simplified Chinese: 黄药子, 黄独, 木药子, 大苦, 赤药, 红药子), is a species of perennial vine in genus Dioscorea … Bat. Morphology Dioscorea bulbifera is a vigorously twining, long-stemmed perennial vine with non-spiny stems to 20 m or more in length, freely branching above; internodes round or slightly angled in cross section and they twine counter-clockwise. Slight variations included closed stomata pore in the wild and open in the in vitro cultivated plants, cuticularization of epidermal walls was observed in the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the wild whereas it was noticed only on the abaxial surfaces of the in vitro plant. Dougall (1979) showed that the yield of diosgenin found in cell culture of D. deltoidea (26mg/g_1 dry wt) was higher than those found in whole plants (20mg/g_1 dry wt). Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of, Bejoy M, Dan M, Anish NP, Anjana RG, Nair BJ, Radhika K, et al. At the moment, in vitro technique has found increasing significance as a complementary means to in situ plant conservation, especially for vegetatively propagated and recalcitrant seed-producing species. The combination and interaction of BAP and NAA had been reported to play an important role in in vitro propagation of nodal explants for multiple shoot induction. Dioscorea bulbifera L. Accepted Name Air potato Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Dioscoreales > Dioscoreaceae > Dioscorea > Dioscorea bulbifera L. In vitro culture explants are exposed to specific artificial conditions which differ from those in the natural environment. Se le conoce como Varahi en sánscrito, kaachil en Malayalam y kand Dukkar en marathi. Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. Post‐Graduate Programe in Food Science and Technology, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, , 23890‐000 Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. Thus, the D. bulbifera plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryogenic tissues were genetically stable at the molecular, biochemical and morphological levels. A: Nodal segments from green house with elongated shoot and leaves; B: Nodal segments from underground bulbil with elongated shoots and root proliferation. Plant has two types of … However, the clinical application has been limited for its hepatotoxicity. SRG/FP/2010/4A). In Europe D. caucasica and D. pyrenaica are found. andD. bulbifera bulbifera dioscorea bulbifera bulbils bulbifera fern bulbifera image bulbifera tuber extract bulbifera food bulbifera family bulbifera scientific name bulbifera yam. 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. The presence of mass of mucilage within the epidermal cell and the presence of glandular unicellular trichomes with multicellular head are indicative of the medicinal lodgments of bioactive principles in the plant and in a way may justify its use in traditional medicine.
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