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Αρχική who built the gorgan wall

who built the gorgan wall

... Great Wall of Gorgan in Iran, (World's second longest wall) Much of the Great Wall of Gorgan now lies buried under several meters of earth and sand built up over time, leaving only a large raised mound which has … Qajar era underground bathroom at Sorkhankalateh Dr. Kiani, who led the archaeological team in 1971, believed that the wall was built during the Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD), and that it was reconstructed and restored during the Sassanid era (3rd to 7th century AD). Less known is the Wall of Gorgan in northeastern Iran (specifically the plain of Gorgan… The Great Wall of Gorgan was built from 420s to 530s CE, serving as a defense system along southeastern parts of the Caspian Sea near modern Gorgan in Golestan Province. The route, from east to west, is represented by the coordinates of the remains of the following forts and other features which lie along the wall. The Sassanid military barriers and fortifications in the Gorgan Plain provide evidence how effective defence, or the lack of it, could contribute to security and prosperity of empires, to their fall or survival. Criterion (iii): The Great Wall of Gorgan  and its associated fortifications of the Late Sassanid era (5th-7th centuries) constitute the greatest cluster of military monuments known from anywhere within the Sassanid Empire. If we assumed that the forts were occupied as densely as those on Hadrian’s Wall, then the garrison on the Gorgan Wall would have been in the order of 30,000 men. That’s especially high praise given that the wall is made solely from mud. Wall as Part of A Large & Sophisticated Water Supply System Whether or not they were parts of a single barrier, the Gorgan and Tammisheh Walls and their associated forts certainly formed part of the same defensive system. The western, Caspian Sea, end of the wall is near the remains of the fort at: 37°08′23″N 54°10′44″E / 37.13981°N 54.1788733°E / 37.13981; 54.1788733; the eastern end of the wall, near the town of Pishkamar, is near the remains of the fort at: 37°31′14″N 55°34′37″E / 37.5206739°N 55.5770498°E / 37.5206739; 55.5770498. An aerial photograph showing the line of the Gorgan Wall still clearly visible in the landscape. This required a supplier canal system of extraordinary scale and sophistication (see introduction), not to mention one brick kiln every 37-86 m, maybe 3,000-7,000 in total. Whilst much of the brick wall itself has been robbed, some sections survive to up to 1.50 m height, whilst in others only the bottom courses remain. The Great Wall of Gorgan, Golestan Province, in northern Iran was built from 420s AD to 530s AD; it is then occupied until the 7 th century. Wall of Tammishe: inland fortlet or watchtower, The enigma of the red snake: revealing one of the world’s greatest frontier walls, British Institute of Persian Studies: Linear Barriers of Northern Iran: The Great Wall of Gorgan and the Wall of Tammishe, Secrets of the Great Wall of Gorgan (Red Snake), Pictures & Diagrams of the Great Wall of Gorgan, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Wall_of_Gorgan&oldid=989635846, Buildings and structures completed in the 1st century, Buildings and structures in Golestan Province, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Turkmen-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Series of ancient defensive fortifications, Mud-brick, fired brick, gypsum, and mortar, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:37. The Great Wall of China is well known as the largest wall in Asia (or indeed the world). However, in his book Empires and Walls, Chaichian (2014) questions the validity of this interpretation using historical evidence of potential political-military threats in the region as well as the economic geography of Gorgan Wall's environs. Hence, it is plausible that the Sassanians built the Great Wall of Gorgan during this time. The forts were filled with barracks of standardized design, suggesting that the Sassanian army was well organized. Great Wall of Gorgan. The Wall of Alexander (Sad-e Eskander) or Red Wall (Qezel Alang) separates modern Golestan, a province in northeastern Iran, from Turkmenistan.This is not just the frontier between two modern states, it is also a very ancient cultural divide: to the south are fertile agricultural grounds and to the north is the steppe. The sole responsibility for the content of each Tentative List lies with the State Party concerned. The system of it is remarkable in terms of its physical scale and its technical sophistication. The route of the Gorgan Wall and the associated canal had to follow a natural gradient, evidence for remarkable skills in hydraulic engineering by its creators. In one of them, rectangular enclosures in neat double rows have been found, the remnants of a tent city, probably of a mobile field army. 40 ha size. Incidentally, it was due to the red color of these bricks that the Great Wall of Gorgan is known also as the ‘Red Snake’. [2] In 2005 a team excavated samples of charcoal from the many brick kilns along the wall, and samples from the Gorgan Wall and the smaller Wall of Tammishe (location of a drowned fort at the northern end: 36°48.595′N 54°1.234′E / 36.809917°N 54.020567°E / 36.809917; 54.020567 (Wall of Tammishe: drowned fort); location of a fortlet or watchtower at the inland end: 36°43.360′N 54°3.675′E / 36.722667°N 54.061250°E / 36.722667; 54.061250 (Wall of Tammishe: inland fortlet or watchtower)[8]); OSL and radiocarbon dating indicated a date for both walls in the late 5th or 6th century AD. The combined area of the forts on the Gorgan Wall exceeds that of those on Hadrian’s Wall about threefold. The … The wall spans some 124 miles of modern-day Golestan province and includes nearly 40 forts. The Great Wall of China is well known as the largest wall in Asia (or indeed the world). 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This is all the more remarkable as this Empire stretched from modern south-east Turkey to Pakistan and from modern Dagestan (Russia) into the Arabian Peninsula. The Great Wall of Gorgan, Golestan Province, in northern Iran was built from 420s AD to 530s AD; it is then occupied until the 7th century. At the time of the Sassanids, "Gurgan" appeared as the name of a city, province capital, and province. A number of empires built “great walls” – the Roman Hadrian’s Wall, the Chola-Pandya Madukkarai Wall, the Sassanid Great Wall of Gorgan, the French Maginot Line, and, of course, the Great Wall of China. It may even join up with the Tammisheh Wall, a shorter defensive barrier of strikingly similar design. While preservation varies from place to place and tends to be better in the east than in the west, the Wall is still recognisable as a distinct landscape feature for most of its course. Coordinates: 37°15′38″N 55°00′37″E / 37.2604343°N 55.010165°E / 37.2604343; 55.010165 (fort (14)). [6], This wall starts from the Caspian coast, circles north of Gonbade Kavous (ancient Gorgan, or Jorjan in Arabic), continues towards the northeast, and vanishes in the Pishkamar Mountains. The structure is yet another testament to … The oldest walls found in existence so far are those of the temple of Gobekli Tepe in Urfa, southeast Turkey which date to 11,500 years ago. Also known as the “Red Snake” for its distinctive red-colored bricks, the “Great Wall of Gorgon” was a 121-mile rampart that extended from the southern coast of the Caspian Sea to the Elburz Mountains in what is now Iran. There the remains of a line of fortifications run inland for some 3 km (1.9 mi) from the shore of the Caspian Sea (42°03′46″N 48°18′26″E / 42.062643°N 48.307185°E / 42.062643; 48.307185) to what is today an extraordinarily well preserved Sassanian fort (42°03′10″N 48°16′27″E / 42.052840°N 48.274230°E / 42.052840; 48.274230) on the first foothills of the Caucasus mountains. the 5th or 6th century). While it is shorter than the "Limes" in Germany, two thirds of which are protected by a rampart rather than a wall, the Gorgan Wall forms a more formidable obstacle. This wall together with its monumental ensembles and other architecturally associated spaces has presented a significant combination with defensive importance. The Great Wall of Gorgan is the longest fort-lined ancient barrier between Central Europe and China, it is longer than Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall put together. The Great Wall of Gorgan was a Sassanian-era … Sometimes one brick was set in the vertical position, with two horizontal rows of bricks laid above and below. Built between 420 AD. The Tammisheh Wall, and probably the Great Wall of Gorgan, extended into territory now submerged in the Caspian Sea, due to a rise of its water-level, they shed unique light on human interaction with the environment, the world’s largest inland Sea and the steppes of Eurasia. It is the longest fort-lined ancient barrier between Central Europe and China, it is longer than Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall put together. Great Wall of Gorgan Measurements The Great Wall of Gorgan stretches almost 200 km (124 miles), starting from the coast of the Caspian Sea in the west, and ending in the Pishkamar Mountains in … It is also more than three times the length of the longest late Roman defensive wall built from scratch, the Anastasian Wall west of Constantinople. Criterion (iv): The Great Wall of Gorgan and contemporary defensive monuments in the Gorgan Plain are of great interest also in shedding light on the particular period of history when they were built and occupied (5th-7th centuries AD). Most of it is not well preserved; the walls of this fort are more or less intact because it was swallowed by sand dunes, protecting it … The structure is yet another testament to Sassanian engineering capabilities. The 40 identified fortresses vary in dimension and shape but the majority are square fortresses, made of the same brickwork as the wall itself and at the same period. are from Wikimapia: Dr. Kiani, who led the archaeological team in 1971, believed that the wall was built during the Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD), and that it was reconstructed and restored during the Sassanid era (3rd to 7th century AD). Undoubtedly, the Great Wall of Gorgan is not just one of the largest monuments of its kind anywhere in the world, but also one that could only be built by architects and surveyors which were exceptionally skilled and creative. In terms of scale and sophistication, the Great Wall of Gorgan is unmatched anywhere in western Asia, Eastern Europe, Africa or America. Clearly the c.195km long ‘Red Snake’ required a huge amount of labour for its construction. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a monument of outstanding universal value. While the fortification and walls on the east side of the Caspian Sea remained unknown to the Graeco-Roman historians, the western half of the impressive "northern fortifications" in the Caucasus were well known to Classical authors. Wall of Gorgan. Archaeologists has initiated new surveys to examine sections of the ancient structure known as the Great Wall of Gorgan, located in northern Iran. They help to explain its geographic extent, from Mesopotamia to the west of the Indian Subcontinent, and how effective border defence contributed to the Empire’s prosperity in the interior and to its longevity. The Gorgan Wall is also longer than any of the Roman linear walls, e.g. [1] The fired bricks were made from the local loess soil, and fired in kilns along the line of the wall. The structure is yet another testament to Sassanian engineering capabilities. In Persian, it was popularized by the name "Alexander Barrier" (سد اسکندر‎ Sadd-i-Iskandar) or "Alexander's Wall", as Alexander the Great is thought by early Muslims to have passed through the Caspian Gates on his hasty march to Hyrcania and the east. The Wall of Alexander near Gonbad-e Kavus. Clay was also used during the early Parthian period. Substantial sections of the Great Wall of Gorgan appear however to be buried under the Caspian Sea.Together with the Tammisheh Wall, a shorter defensive barrier of similar design, also dating from the Sasanid time, both walls were part of the same defence system and were built of large fired bricks of similar shape and size and lined by an earth bank and ditch (supplied with water by the canals). Larger than Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall taken together (two separate structures in Britain that marked the northern limits of the Roman Empire), it has been called the greatest monument of its kind between Europe and China. The Great Wall of Gorgan, the second biggest defensive wall in the world, was built in the Parthian and Sassanian periods. Derbent and its Caspian Gates are at the western part of the historical region of Hyrcania. It is also known as the "Anushirvân Barrier" (سد انوشیروان‎ Sadd-i Anushiravan) and "Firuz/Piruz Barrier" (سد پیروز‎), and is officially referred to as "Gorgan Defence Wall" (دیوار دفاعی گرگان‎). © UNESCO World Heritage Centre 1992-2020 There was no stone or timber in the steppe, and in order to build a massive defensive barrier, resistant to winter rain, an estimated 200 million fired bricks, each weighing c. 20 kg, had to be produced. Among archaeologists the wall is also known as "The Red Snake" (Turkmen: Qizil Alan) because of the colour of its bricks. Dating. United Nations, Post-Conflict and Post-Disaster Responses, Astronomy and World Heritage Thematic Initiative, Human Evolution: Adaptations, Dispersals and Social Developments (HEADS), Initiative on Heritage of Astronomy, Science and Technology, Initiative on Heritage of Religious Interest, Natural World Heritage in the Congo Basin, Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape, Reducing Disasters Risks at World Heritage Properties, World Heritage and Sustainable Development, World Heritage and Sustainable Tourism Programme, World Heritage Centre’s Natural Heritage Strategy, World Heritage Earthen Architecture Programme (WHEAP). An alternative theory links the Caspian Gates to the so-called "Alexander's Wall" (the Great Wall of Gorgan) on the south-eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, 180 km of which is still preserved today, albeit in a very poor state of repair. It is surpassed only by the walls systems of Great Wall of China as the longest single-segment building and the longest defensive wall in existence. In order to enable construction works, canals had to be dug along the course of the defensive barrier, to provide the water needed for brick production. This was the time when the Persian Empire, under the Sassanian dynasty, was involved in a series of wars at its northern frontier, first against the Hephthalites or White Huns and later against the Turks. Archaeologist Warwick Ball has called the Wall of Gorgan “amongst the most ambitious and sophisticated frontier walls ever built”. The Gorgan Wall begins from the coast of the Caspian Sea, meandering to the north of Gonbade Kâvous. Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party. The wall is believed to have protected the Sassanian Empire to the south from the peoples to the north,[2] probably the White Huns. [1], The barrier consists of a wall, 195 km (121 mi) long and 6–10 m (20–33 ft) wide,[6] with over 30 fortresses at intervals of between 10 and 50 km (6.2 and 31.1 mi). The Gorgan Plain with its defensive monuments of the Sassanid era(5th-7th centuries) constitute the greatest cluster of military monuments known from anywhere within the Sassanid Empire, contemporary to a large-scale urban foundation, provides a microcosm of one of the ancient world’s largest states. It was built in the 5th–6th century during the Sāsānian dynasty and was designed to repel attacks, mainly from the Hephthalites and Turks. Models, taking into account the size and room number of the barrack blocks in the Gorgan Wall forts and likely occupation density, produce figures between 15,000 and 36,000 soldiers. It is the longest fort-lined ancient barrier between Central Europe and China, it is longer than Hadrian’s Wall … The wall can still be traced for 195 km (120 miles), beginning by the sea and following the Gorgan River across the plain to the mountains. The wall is located at a geographic narrowing between the Caspian Sea and the mountains of northeastern Iran. Sections of the monument, dated from the Sassanian-era (224 to 651 CE), have already been unearthed. The wall is second only to the walls that make up the Great Wall of China as the longest defensive wall in existence, and although now in substantial disrepair, it was perhaps even more solidly built than the early forms of the Great Wall.[2]. Thus, due to its interaction with upper mentioned civilizations and cultures and its strategic location, carries important contents from the past. Great Mosque of Gorgan (Masjed Jame') Great Wall of Gorgan, is a series of ancient defensive fortifications dating back to the Sassanian era, built to protect the empire from the nomadic peoples of north. The system is remarkable not only in terms of its physical scale, but even more so in terms of its technical sophistication. It is known as Qïzïl Yïlan or Qazal Al'an to local Iranian Turkmens. The Great Wall of Gorgan is one of the most elaborate defensive barriers ever erected and arguably the most sophisticated of its time (i.e. The Great Wall of Gorgan is particularly well preserved in the hilly landscape in the east. The publication of the Tentative Lists does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever of the World Heritage Committee or of the World Heritage Centre or of the Secretariat of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries. The ancient defensive barriers in the Gorgan Plain testify to a period which saw an important stage in the history of region regarding knowledge and technology transfer which associated to the safety of the region along trade routes, as well as remarkable developments, in terms of regional-planning, landscape design and technology. It is said to be the longest architectural work of ancient Iran, which was built in 90 years. The Great Wall of Gorgan, also called the "The Red Snake" or “Alexander's Barrier” is the second-longest defensive wall (after the Great Wall of China), which ran for 121 miles from a narrowing between the Caspian Sea north of Gonbade Kavous (ancient Gorgan, or Jorjan in Arabic) and the Pishkamar mountains of north-eastern Iran. The Great Wall of Gorgan stretches for almost 200 km and is lined by 38 forts. In the early 7th century the Empire even controlled Yemen and, briefly, the eastern Levant. More Contacts Site Map Become a member Donate Now! [1] The title coordinate is for the location of the remains of a fort midway along the wall. West end of wall. At the same time, the Sassanid Empire also had the resources to create in the hinterland of the Wall a large city, Dasht Qal’eh, of 3 km2 interior size and with monumental architecture, notably brick pillar avenues. Both walls employed large fired bricks of similar shape and size, both are lined by an earth bank and ditch (supplied with water by canals) and by batteries of virtually identical brick kilns, both are protected by similar forts and both run from the Alborz Mountains to the Caspian Sea. This is mostly referred to the Ming Great Wall, built from 1368 to 1644, measures 8,850 km long. Publications World Heritage Review Series Resource Manuals World Heritage wall map More publications ... Funding World Heritage Fund International Assistance. (Credit: Arman Ershadi) Engineering Marvel. Criterion (ii):  The Great Wall of Gorgan, and the associated extensive military infrastructure in its hinterland, is of a larger scale than any known purpose-built military monument of earlier times in the Near East. Great Wall of Gorgan ('Red Snake') Nicknamed for the red stone used to build it, the Great Wall of Gorgon was built in the fifth century to protect the fertile city of Hyrcania from the White Huns who raided it for its resources. Less known is the Wall of Gorgan in northeastern Iran (specifically the plain of Gorgan) attributed to the Sassanian era (224-651 AD). Less known is the Wall of Gorgan in northeastern Iran (specifically the plain of Gorgan) attributed to the Sassanian era (224-651 AD). It is commonly known as “the Red Snake” because of the construction materials used, red colored bricks. One of these, the Sadd-e Garkaz, survives to c. 700 m length and 20 m height, but was originally almost one kilometre long. The stone wall is in a poor state of repair and this means that it is hard t… These figures do not take into account that a substantial section in the west appears to be buried under marine sediments of the Caspian Sea. There is another fortified wall 22 km to the west running parallel to the mentioned wall, between modern cities of Bandar-e Gaz and Behshahr. The Red Snake: The Great Wall of Gorgan . The mysterious wall was ‘the length of the famous Hadrian's Wall that was built across England by the Romans’ reports Live Science . The route of the Gorgan Wall and the associated canal had to follow a natural gradient, evidence for remarkable skills in hydraulic engineering by its creators. While of lesser physical length than some of the ancient Chinese barriers, in terms of the scale of its forts and hinterland fortifications, it also rivals similar monuments in ancient China. Description. The Gorgan River as the longest river in Golestan province is located in the South of Gorgan wall from East to West that has the main role to build the wall. Criterion (i): The Great Wall of Gorgan posed exceptional engineering challenges. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a series of ancient defensive fortifications located near Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. The Great Wall of Gorgon is an incredible and sophisticated defensive construction located in north-eastern Iran; it has around 30 military forts, an aqueduct, and water channels that go along the route. It was once thought to have been the work of Alexander the Great—it was even known as “Alexander’s Barrier”—but more recent research suggests it was built by the Sasanian Persians sometime around the 5th century A.D. The ‘Great Wall of Gorgan’ also, incorrectly, known as ‘Alexander’s Wall’, runs from the southeast corner of the Caspian Sea for at least 195 km eastwards, into the Elburz Mountains. It is one of several Caspian Gates at the eastern part of a region known in antiquity as Hyrcania, on the nomadic route from the northern steppes to the Iranian heartland. At 195 km long, the wall is second only to the Great Wall of China as the longest defensive wall in existence, but until recently, nobody knew who had built it. [2] These dates suggest that the current wall, at least, is Sassanid rather than Parthian, and that the current structure did not yet exist, some 800 years earlier, in the time of Alexander the Great (died 323 BC). It is surpassed only by the Great Wall of China as the longest defensive wall in existence. Models, taking into account the size and room number of the barrack blocks in the Gorgan Wall forts and likely occupation density, produce figures between 15,000 and 36,000 soldiers. The Sassanid military barriers and fortifications in the Gorgan Plain provide evidence how effective defence, or the lack of it, could contribute to security and prosperity of empires. In 2005 a team excavated samples of charcoal from the many brick kilns along the wall, and samples from the Gorgan Wall and the smaller Wall of Tammishe (location of a drowned fort at the northern end: 36°48.595′N 54°1.234′E / 36.809917°N 54.020567°E ; location of a fortlet or watchtow… It is 195 km (121 mi) long and 6–10 m (20–33 ft) wide,[6] and features over 30 fortresses spaced at intervals of between 10 and 50 km (6.2 and 31.1 mi). The reason for this is that the man in the "high castle" had much a stake. Believed to have been built during the Parthian Empire (247 BCE–224 CE) and restored during the Sassanid era (3rd to 7th century AD), the Great Wall Of Gorgon is a incredible and sophisticated defensive construction located in north-eastern Iran, it has around 30 military forts, an aqueduct, and water channels that go along the route. The Gorgan Plain with its defensive monuments of the Sassanid era, contemporary to a large-scale urban foundation, provides a microcosm of one of the ancient world’s largest states. It rivals or surpasses its grandest Roman counterparts in dimensions and complexity. At the present point in time some of the monuments in questions still retain much of their original building materials, anyhow it is our aim to ensure much better protection of the authentic elements of this unique heritage. The Gorgan Wall and its associated ancient military monuments provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire. Mud-bricks were more popular in the early period in the construction of forts and cities, while fired bricks became popular in the later period. Further evidence for a high level of organization of the Sassanian armed forces is provided by hinterland campaign bases, each of ca. [3] It is described as "amongst the most ambitious and sophisticated frontier walls" ever built in the world,[4] and the most important of the Sassanian defense fortifications.[5]. It is over a thousand years earlier than the stone and brick-built Great Wall of China (i,ii,iii,iv,vi); its contemporary and earlier Chinese counterparts were essentially earthworks, even if, of course, of impressive sophistication too, in terms, for example, of boosting an advanced signalling system. Gorgan and Tammisha walls have been built in the Gorgan plain at the south and southeast of the Caspian for that purpose. The Great Wall of Gorgan stretches for almost 200 km and is lined by 38 forts. A similar Sasanian defence wall and fortification lies on the opposite, western, side of the Caspian Sea at the port of Derbent, in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia. The Gorgan Wall measures approximately at a length of 155 kilometers and spans a range of 6-10 meters in width. They help to explain its geographic extent, from Mesopotamia to the west of the Indian Subcontinent, and how effective border defence contributed to the Empire’s prosperity in the interior and to its longevity. This decisive period of history saw the demise of the Western Roman Empire and the eventual emergence of the Caliphate, expanding at the expense of the Sassanid and Eastern Roman Empires. These canals received their water from supplier canals, which bridged the Gorgan River via qanats. Great Wall of Gorgan: Revealing one of the Worlds Greatest Frontier Walls. Even the lowest estimate suggests a strong and powerful army, all the more remarkable as our investigations focused just on 200km of vulnerable frontier, a small fraction of the thousands of kilometres of borders of one of the ancient world's largest empires.[2]. The Gorgan Wall and its associated ancient military monuments provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire. While this rings true for people who own a house, it was even more important for the leader in charge of a kingdom, an empire or even a republic. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a series of ancient defensive fortifications located near Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. The brick wall is lined by 38 forts, a canal, fed by a complex system of supplier canals, as well as a large number of brick kilns, in part preserved to the present day, not to mention fortresses and a large city in its hinterland. Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall. If we assumed that the forts were occupied as densely as those on Hadrian's Wall, then the garrison on the Gorgan Wall would have been in the order of 30,000 men. City walls, which became common for purposes of defense, are first seen around the city of Jericho (now in the West Bank) around the 10th century BCE and the Sumerian city of Uruk which was founded somewhat later (though both cities lay claim to the honor of `first city in the world'). Criterion (v): The Tammisheh Wall, and probably the Great Wall of Gorgan, extended into territory now submerged in the Caspian Sea, due to a rise of its water-level. and 530 AD, the Great Wall of Gorgan served as a defense system stretching along the southeastern part of the Caspian Sea near the modern Gorgan in the province of Golestan. There are, of course, a large number of ancient linear barriers across the world, but very few of them are lined by forts and few reach or exceed a length of 100 km. The coordinates and fort numbers, etc. The Tentative Lists of States Parties are published by the World Heritage Centre at its website and/or in working documents in order to ensure transparency, access to information and to facilitate harmonization of Tentative Lists at regional and thematic levels. There was no stone or timber in the steppe; it is just made of bricks. Situated in the city of Gorgan, the capital of northern Golestan province, the defensive wall is about 200 km in length and it was built to prevent the invasion of the northern tribes. In 1999 a logistical archaeological survey was conducted regarding the wall due to problems in development projects, especially during construction of the Golestan Dam, which irrigates all the areas covered by the wall. The wall lies slightly to the north of a local river, and features a 5 m (16 ft) ditch that conducted water along most of the wall.[2]. Being at the mid-point between the Roman and Chinese barriers, the evolution of large-scale linear defensive systems cannot be understood without taking the Great Wall of Gorgan into account. Much better preserved are those elements of the defensive system built of soil or mud-brick. [2] Due to many difficulties in development and agricultural projects, archaeologists have been assigned to mark the boundary of the historical find by laying cement blocks. The sizes of mud or fired bricks differ, but in general the standard size was 40 × 40 × 10 cm. The Great Wall of Gorgan is the world’s largest defense wall, second only to the famed Wall of China. It runs from the Bamu Mountains to near a small village, near Guwaver of Gilan-e-Gharb, and much of it is built on hills and rocky outcrops. This was the time when the Persian Empire, under the Sassanian dynasty, was involved in a series of wars at its northern frontier, first against the Hephthalites or White Huns and later against the Turks. Dr. Kiani, who led the archaeological team in 1971, believed that the wall was built during the Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD), and that it was reconstructed and restored during the Sassanid era (3rd to 7th century AD). If Alexander encountered a barrier at this location it was a predecessor of the current wall. The Wall of Tammisha (also Tammishe), with a length of around 11 km, was stretched from the Gorgan Bay to the Alborz mountains, in particular, the ruined town of Tammisha at the foot of the mountains. Together with canals and associated settlement in the steppe north of the Gorgan Wall of an earlier period (c. 8th-5th centuries BC), they shed unique light on human interaction with the environment, the world’s largest inland Sea and the steppes of Eurasia. As the saying goes, "a man's home is his castle." Constructed between 420 CE and 530 CE, the Great Wall of Gorgan served as a defense system stretched along southeastern parts of the Caspian Sea near modern Gorgan in Golestan Province. Thus, due to its interaction with civilizations and cultures and its strategic location, carries important contents from the past. The canals, of course, as well as pits within the forts are still largely preserved, though canal banks have also has some damages. At the point of the connection of the wall and the drainage canal from the dam, architects discovered the remains of the Great Wall of Gorgan. The survey found the remains of a wall that stretched for 71 miles (115 kilometers), during its work. Like the frontiers of the Roman Empire and the Great Wall of China it deserves World Heritage status. It is also more than three times the length of the longest late Roman defensive wall. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a Sasanian-era defense system located near modern Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. [6][7], The building materials consist of mud-brick, fired brick, gypsum, and mortar. Excavations in Fort 4 have demonstrated that the original mud-brick walls of these, probably two-storey-high, buildings survive to a height of more than three metres. These monuments are, in terms of their scale, historical importance and sophistication, of global significance. Less known is the Wall of Gorgan in northeastern Iran (specifically the plain of Gorgan) attributed to the Sassanian era (224-651 AD). This decisive period of history saw the demise of the Western Roman Empire and the eventual emergence of the Caliphate, expanding at the expense of the Sassanid and Eastern Roman Empires. The Great Wall of China is well known as the largest wall in Asia (or indeed the world). 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